HIV story + visualisation

How migrants affect the number of HIV people in the UK

About 100,000 people in the UK are HIV positive. In 2012 about 22% of infected people were not aware of their infection. There is double amount of infected men than women.
43 % are male gay and 34% are heterosexuals Africans. The UK has double amount of infected men than women.

In 1985 was the second highest infectivity of HIV due to developed testing. The highest wave of infectivity was in 2004. In the same year ten new European countries have joined the Europe Union and their citizens were free to work and live in the UK. The ten new countries were Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak republic and Slovenia. In 2011 Czech, Slovakia and Hungary were in the top five countries with EU lowest rate of HIV patients. Bulgaria and Romania, which are free to work and live in the UK since January 2014, filled up this top five. The UK belonged in top five of the countries with the highest EU HIV rates together with Estonia, Latvia, Luxemburg and Portugal. The lowest and the highest EU rates are made according to amount of people with HIV to 100,000 population.

The lowest amount of new HIV diagnosed people in 2004 was in Malta with 16 people and in 2011 with 21 people. The second place belonged to Slovakia with 15 people in 2004 and with 49 people in 2011. Cyprus was third with 25 people in 2004 and with 54 in 2011. The highest rate had the UK with 7,788 in 2004 and with 6271 in 2011. In a group of the UK and ten new EU countries the second place went to Estonia with 743 in 2004 and 366 in 2011. Third was Latvia with 324 new HIV diagnose people in 2004 and with 299 in 2011.

Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

Source: Public Health England
HIV new diagnoses in the EU 2

While number of HIV patients during 2004 – 2011 was rapidly increasing in Eastern Europe (Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova) in the Western Europe it was still. The highest rates on new HIV positive people were reported in Ukraine, 17, 33638 people which is 38 people per 100,000 and Moldova with 721 people which makes 20.3 people per 100,000 in 2011. Migrants do significantly increase the number of HIV patients living in the UK but not European ones. In 1980s HIV were most common in gay community. From 1990s the number of HIV heterosexual has increased substantially. The majority of HIV heterosexuals were migrants from overseas, mainly sub-Saharan Africa. Africans are the most migration group rising HIV rates in the UK and are closely connected with the term health touristic. Since 2012 everyone single person has right to received treatment according to their needs. But big part of asylum seekers are people with no or very low education that don’t even know that UK offers such a service. A survey by Terrence Higgins Trust and George House Trust showed that there are variety reasons that HIV migrants to come to the UK: study (20%), to seek asylum (22%), to visit (22%) or to join family (12%). Non UK nationals who are not asylum seekers had a similar profile to asylum seekers. In 2011 96% of Africans migrants were infected heterosexual way with double amount of infected women than men. If all Africans get tested the result could be rapidly different, because African men are discourage from testing by strong culture reasons. In 2006 35% of all HIV adults were born in Africa and 52% of all UK HIV adults were heterosexuals. During 2006, the UK received 23,520 asylum applications, when 44% were from Africa (global region with the highest prevalence of HIV). The most common origin of asylum seekers applying from African countries was Eritrea (25%), followed by Somalia (18%) and Zimbabwe (16%). Approximately 900 asylum seekers with HIV entered in the country in 2003. The number of people migrating to the UK increased by 85% between 1994 and 2004. In 2004, over half a million people migrated to the UK. Since 2005 new diagnoses are slowly declining largely due to a reduction of new diagnoses reported among those born outside the UK. In 2011 was 21 % less new diagnoses than in2005. But it doesn’t mean that the number of people living with HIV in the UK is declining as well. Every year there is about 6,000 of new HIV diagnoses. Due to medical progress HIV doesn’t mean death sentence in the developed countries anymore. This explains why number of people with HIV is still increasing in despite of declining of new HIV diagnoses. Medical progress makes rapid difference between amount of people with HIV and AIDS (difference between HIV and AIDS is explained below). In 2012 were 6,364 new HIV diagnoses while just 390 AIDS new diagnoses and 488 deaths.

Source: Public Health England
HIV Ethinicity 2004, 2011, bar graph

In 2007 a year cost treatment for one person was around £18,000 and year by year it is increasing due to improved drugs. In 2006 annual cost of all HIV UK patients was £ 483 million. Community care cost £200 million. It was projected that in 2013 the annual cost could be £721 million without the community care.

Amount of infected people among drug users or throughblood tissues is minimal.

HIV is a virus which attacks the T-cells in the immune system. The virus is passed through blood-to-blood or sexual contact.

AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is a medical condition caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). It appears in advanced stage of HIV infection.